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Role and Types of Information Systems


The current era signifies rapid advancements in information technologies, profoundly influencing societies. During this period, the strategic importance of information surpasses traditional production factors for businesses to succeed and gain a competitive advantage. The increasing need for information is vital in effectively managing conventional factors like capital, raw materials, energy, and labor, directing them towards the enterprise’s goals.


Businesses constitute complex systems, where components work cohesively to serve a specific purpose. Humans, as living systems, form through the integration of organs performing various functions for life. Similarly, businesses are systems that organize production factors to achieve profitability and provide service to society.

Four crucial elements defining systems include:

  1. Purpose (or outcome): Emphasizing the necessity of at least one function within the system.
  2. Multiple components: The integral parts forming the system.
  3. Relationships between components: Connections preventing the system from being a mere stack of parts.
  4. Whole formed by components: Representing a formation performing a specific function.

Business as a System

An enterprise, operating in order, brings together production factors for a specific purpose. Units within businesses, like marketing, production, human resources, and accounting finance, function as subsystems, collaborating to fulfill sub-goals that serve the enterprise’s main purpose.

System and Environment Relationship

Every system is separated from its environment by a boundary, distinguishing and determining its components. Systems can be classified as closed or open. Closed systems don’t interact with their environment, while open systems engage in relationships. Open systems receive inputs, process them internally, and deliver outputs to the environment, with functions such as input transformation and output feedback being crucial.

Information Systems and Classification

Information systems record, process, and generate information about business movements. These systems fall into five main categories:

  1. Record Processing Systems: Operations like sales, inventory, and preliminary accounting.
  2. Process Control Systems: Observing and controlling physical processes, e.g., a petroleum refinery.
  3. Collaboration Systems: Enhancing communication and efficiency among teams and workgroups.
  4. Management Information Systems (MIS): Producing information supporting managerial decisions and presenting summary reports.
  5. Decision Support Systems (DSS): Providing direct computer support in managerial decision-making.

These systems, working collaboratively, meet diverse business needs, contributing to enhanced effectiveness and efficiency.


Effectively utilizing information systems is inevitable for business success and gaining a competitive edge. These systems play significant roles in organizing business processes, supporting management practices, and contributing to decision-making. Strategically employing information systems enables businesses to thrive and grow in the dynamically changing business world.

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