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Information Management in Businesses


Managing information in businesses plays a critical role in achieving success in today’s competitive business world. The accurate collection, evaluation, and utilization of information stand out as crucial factors in enhancing the effectiveness of businesses. In this context, managing information in businesses focuses on three main forms of use: direct use, indirect use, and symbolic use.

Direct Use:

Effectively utilizing information in the daily operations or decision-making processes of a business constitutes direct information use. Information is directly referenced in problem-solving or decision-making processes.

Indirect Use:

Utilizing information to gain a general perspective, enlightenment, and to increase knowledge with the aim of solving long-term problems or making healthier decisions by accumulating specific knowledge falls under indirect information use.

Symbolic Use:

Using information in a way that may not align with the intended purpose is symbolic information use. Examples of symbolic information use include distorting market research results or intentionally withholding information.

Evaluation and Measurement of Information:

In the process of managing information in businesses, efforts are made to assess how much the obtained or produced information contributes to effectiveness, development, and gaining a competitive advantage against rivals.

Communication Types in Information Flow:

Information flow in businesses occurs through communication among individuals and units within and outside the organization. Communication types can be considered from the perspectives of structural functioning and the direction of message flow.

From the Perspective of Structural Functioning:

  • Formal Communication: Conducted within the framework of the business’s objectives and specific rules.
  • Informal Communication: The natural communication established by employees within the organization.

From the Perspective of Message Flow:

  • Vertical Communication: Occurs either from top to bottom or from bottom to top in the hierarchical structure of the business.
  • Horizontal Communication: Takes place between different units at the same level.
  • Diagonal Communication: Occurs between units at different levels without considering the hierarchical structure.

Tools Used in Information Flow:

  • Written Communication Tools: Reports, posters, bulletins, brochures, and business newspapers.
  • Verbal Communication Tools: Phone calls, face-to-face meetings, conferences, and discussions.
  • Visual and Auditory Communication Tools: Video, slides, overhead projectors, and episcopes.
  • Electronic Communication Tools: The internet, intranet, and email.

Information Maps:

Businesses can leverage information maps to evaluate strengths and pinpoint gaps in knowledge accumulation. These maps facilitate access to hard-to-reach information by illustrating the precise locations of specific data.


Efficiently implementing and continually enhancing information management processes is imperative for businesses aiming to secure a competitive advantage. Consequently, the scrupulous application and refinement of these processes evolve into a pivotal and indispensable component in formulating a successful and sustainable business strategy.

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