Management in Businesses: The Art of Being a Manager


Businesses, established with the aim of providing products and services to consumers through complex structures, require effective and efficient functioning. The responsibility for this lies with those who manage the business. Management in businesses involves acquiring different inputs such as raw materials, human resources, capital, technology, and information under the most suitable conditions to transform products and services to meet customer demands.

Basic Principles of Management and Managerial Skills

Management plays a critical role in the success of businesses. Among the essential skills managers should possess are technical skills, interpersonal skills related to human relations, and conceptual skills.

  1. Technical Skills: Involves the knowledge and ability necessary for the manager to perform tasks in their functional area of expertise. It requires proficiency in various areas of business management to effectively oversee operations.
  2. Interpersonal Skills: Encompasses the ability to collaborate with individuals or groups. A good manager excels in interpersonal relationships, including effective communication, leadership, motivation, and trust-building.
  3. Conceptual Skills: The ability to see the business as a whole. It involves the manager’s understanding of internal relationships, environmental factors, and the overall direction, allowing them to think strategically and set long-term goals.

Management, The Very Essence of Art

Management, at its simplest definition, is the execution of tasks through others. However, in today’s businesses, it is crucial that these activities are carried out effectively and efficiently rather than randomly. Effectiveness involves achieving the best results with existing resources, while efficiency means obtaining the maximum output with the least resource utilization.

Management requires foresight, decision-making, success in human relationships, intuition, and the ability to adapt to changing conditions. Different managers interpret and evaluate the same issues in various ways, resulting in different management styles.

Management Process and Management Styles

The management process, concerning groups managing businesses, includes three different types: family management, political management, and professional management.

  1. Family Management: Refers to a situation where ownership, political decision-making bodies, and a significant portion of the hierarchical structure consist of members of a specific family.
  2. Political Management: A management style where individuals with specific political inclinations and relationships, rather than members of a particular family, are in control. Political thinking and goals are essential in this type of management.
  3. Professional Management: A management type where core decision-making bodies and hierarchical structures are filled by individuals selected based on expertise and skills. The separation of ownership and management in large businesses has increased the importance of this type.

Management Pyramid and Management Levels

In businesses, different management levels exist, comprising managers and the skills, roles, and functions they need when fulfilling their duties. Traditionally, the organizational structure of businesses resembles a pyramid. The management levels include top-level management, middle-level management, and lower-level management.

  1. Top-Level Management: Determines the general policies and strategies of the business, makes decisions affecting the entire business, and directs relationships between the business and the external environment. They often hold titles such as general manager or managing director.
  2. Middle-Level Management: Occupies a position between lower-level and top-level management. It is primarily responsible for the management of key business units and coordinates the work of lower-level managers.
  3. Lower-Level Management: The management level that executes the operational activities of the business and is directly involved in production or service delivery. Managers at this level oversee employees in the lower hierarchy and are responsible for implementing the plans of middle-level management.

Management and Leadership: Differences

Management and leadership, often confused but representing two distinct functions, differ in the following ways:

  1. Management: Primarily involves planning, organizing, controlling, and coordinating organizational tasks and processes.
  2. Leadership: Primarily involves motivating people, inspiring them, creating a vision, and managing change.

In Conclusion

Management in businesses is a complex and dynamic process. Successful management can help a business achieve its goals, motivate employees, and adapt to changing conditions. Managers need to have technical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills and use leadership and management skills effectively to play a crucial role in this process.

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